The Atlantic City Heritage Collections maintains biographical files for people with significant connections to Atlantic City history, past and present. These files may include newspaper clippings, obituaries, photographs, and other paper information. The files are not comprehensive and not all items in the files are dated. An alphabetical list of names in the biographical files is below. The Atlatnic City Heritage Collections also maintains subject clippings files for topics related to Atlantic City history's past and present.

Biography Files are part of the Heston Collection and are only available during research hours.  If you are unable to visit the Library in person, please refer to the information on Copy and Research Fees before contacting the Heston Collection staff.

Local History Biography Files (alphabetical listing of names - last name, first name)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Abate, Catherine
Abdullah, Hassan
Abel, Bernard
Abrahamson, Elaine
Abramoff, William
Abrams, Harold Paul [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection H007 - Harold P. Abrams Collection]
Abrams, Joseph S.
Abrams, L.R.
Adams, Carleton
Adams, Jessie France
Adams, John S.
Adler, Sam
Agronsky, Martin
Aiken, Willa Mae
Ake, Charles Dr.
Albani, Pedro
Albouy, William "Rube", Capt.
Algar, Leonard
Ali, Arfien Clifford
Allan, A. Livingston
Allen, Catherine
Allen, Gene
Allen, Richard
Allen-Showell, Asa
Allman, David B., Dr.
Allmond, Joseph T.
Allmond, LaRue G.
Alten, Ben
Alten, Mace
Altman, Joseph
Alton, Elizabeth Barstow
Amstutz, Frank W.
Anderson, Charles Alfred "Chief"
Anderson, Omar Ahmed
Anderson, Richard Stanley "Skippy"
Andrews, Clarence L., Dr.
Andrews, John G. "Johnny"
Anthony, Gwendolyn
Applegate, John
Ascher, John
Ashley, Rhoda, Dr.
Austin Family
Avayou Family
Avery, James
Avery, John G.W.

Babcock, Charles C.
Babcock, Ruth
Bacharach Family
Bader, Daniel S.
Bader, Edward L.
Baker, Earl V.
Baker, Irvin
Balliet, L. Dow, Dr. & Mrs.
Bandon-Bibum, Angeline
Bannister, Edward
Barban, Emily Jewell
Barbara-Lacey, Mary
Barber, Stanley SEE: Abdullah, Hassan
Barbera, Frank A.
Barbour, Hubert U.
Barbour, Marlene W.
Barclay, Alexis
Barkan, Ben
Barker, Russell F., Mrs.
Barker, Thomas A.
Barnard, Abel
Barrett, Clark S.
Barstow, Joseph A.
Bartha, Alex
Barth, Charles P., Rev. Msgr. J.C.D.
Bashaw, Curtis
Batzer, Morris
Baxter, Lorraine M.
Baylinson, Myer, Dr.
Beatles, The
Beatty, Dorothy
Beatty, Marvin E., Jr.
Beckwith, John T., Dr.
Behrman, Maude, Sister
Belisle, David W.
Bell, Albert T.
Bell, Cornelius Donald "Corney"
Bell, Daniel H. V.
Bell, Ezra C.
Bennett, Harvey, Rev. Dr.
Bennett, Spencer Miller “Pop”
Berenato, Jack, Sr.
Berke, George H.
Bew Family
Beyer, Albert
Beyer, Walter E.
Birnbaum, Charles
Bishop, Bennie
Black, Albert R.
Black, William J.
Black-Taylor, Barbara
Blake, Eubie
Blatchford, William Wallack, Rev.
Blatt Family
Blaw, Jacob B.
Boehm, William N.
Boggs, Cora
Bois, Marie Josephine
Boucher, Jack E.
Boucher, John L.
Bowen, John W.
Bowker, William
Boyd, James H. [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection – Boyd Family Papers]
Boyd, Marie E. [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection – Boyd Family Papers]
Boyer, Charles B.
Boyer, William C.
Bradley, Erick Nathaniel
Bradley, Ernest James
Bradway, Joseph F.
Brady, James B.
Braha, Abraham
Brand, Harold A.
Brathwaite Family
Braun, Andrew Christian, Rev.
Braymes, Lois
Braymes, Mark A.
Bremmer, Leroy
Brennan, Grace J.
Briscoe, Carl E.
Brock, J.R., Professor
Brodsky, Dr. Emanuel D.
Brooks, John H.
Brown, Carroll W.
Brown, Dave
Brown, Harold Roger
Brown, J. Carlisle, Dr.
Brown, Joan Myers
Brown, Lafayette
Brown, LaGreta
Brown, Michele B.
Browne, Vera Carmen
Brunette, Frank Anthony
Bryant, Horace J.
Bryant, John Lake
Bryant, Lewis T., General
Bryant, Lillian W.
Burch, William D., Jr.
Burke, John P.
Burke, John Sonny
Burns, Harvey T.
Burling, Albert E., Judge
Burton, Angela
Butler, Anna Land
Butler, Frank M.
Butschi, Ernest
Buzby, Walter J. and Family
Byard, Carole
Bykovsky, Sheree

Cain, C. Morris
Callaway Family
Canada, Charlotte, Sister
Canady, Samuel R.
Capone, Al
Carbone, John L. H.
Carmack, James K.
Carpenter, Nadine Boggs
Carrere, John Merven
Carrigan, Kathryn
Carrington, Pauline Hogan
Carroll, Harry
Carver, Lorena
Carter, Lorenzo
Casey, William F. and Family
Cash, Alice
Cash, Rosalind
Cassell, Joseph
Castellani, Attilio N.
Caution, Margaret Lee
Cavileer, Clarence
Cavileer, Ralph N.
Charlton, C. Coulter, Dr.
Charlton, William
Chauhan, Ytit
Chenoweth, Arthur S.
Cherry, Wendell
Chew, John C.
Chittum, Donald
Ciaurella, Paul
Cicalese, Robert
Cicero, Joseph
Clark, Curene Clark
Clark, Walter
Clarke, Mae
Clayton, Willie B., Dr.
Clement, John
Coking, Vera
Cole, Barbara Mansfield
Cole, Isaac S., Rev.
Cole, Maurice Y.    
Colombo, Chris
Conover, Betty
Conover, Smith
Conrad, Eugene J.
Consalvo, Salvatore T., Jr.
Cook, Franklin P.
Cook, Harrison
Cooke, Lenny
Cooper, Lorraine
Cope, Paul M.
Corio, Joseph A.
Cornell, Margaret Price
Corry, Harold
Couch, Bernice Byrd
Covelski, Stan
Cowans, Joseph
Cox, William J.
Cozart, Winfield F.
Cramer, Catherine
Cress, Walter "Fred"
Creswell, Margaret
Cronkite, Walter
Crosby, James
Cross, June
Crosson, Edmond J.
Cuff, Alice
Cunningham, John T.
Cuskaden, Albert D., Dr.
Cuthbert, William S.

DaGrosa, John “Ox”
DaGrossa, Anthony
DaGrossa, Thomas
D'Amato, Angelo
D’Amato, Grace Anselmo
D’Amato, Paul “Skinny”
Damico, Joseph
Damico, Stephen A.
Daniels, Billy
Darlington, Earlene B.
Davenport, Clarence C., Sr.
Davis, Edward A. "Ed"
Davis, Elvera “Baby Sanchez”
Davis, Elwood
Davis, Georgeanna S.
Deane, Adelaide
DeBrier, Daniel, Gen.
DeHellebranth Family
Deitch, Samuel
DeLacy, Henry
DeSimone, Gabriel
Del Beato, Joe
DeLuca, Camillo
DeLuca, Daniel
De Santis, Dominico
Dempsey, Jack
Dennis, George
Detwiler, H. W. Bland, Rev.
Devine, Michael A.
Devinney, William L., Capt.
Devlin, Eddie
Devlin, James H.
Devlin, Louis T.
Dickerson, George Gibson
Dike, Clarence S.
Disston, Henry
Divine, Margaret Guy
Dixon, Delorise Trapp
DJ AM SEE: Goldstein, Adam
Doble, Charles K.
Dodd, Frank J. "Pat"
Dodson, Mall
Doggett, Frank B., Jr., Dr.
Donaldson, Edith
Donaway, Cordelia
Dorrington, Art
Dorrington, Dorothie W.
Dougherty, Arleen
Doughty Family
Downing, Emma W.
Downs, Margaret H.
Draper, Charles
Dumas, Theresa Johnson
Duncan, William K. "Bill"
Dunleavy, James Donald
DuRoss, Daniel
Drinkhouse, Donald F.
Duffy, Michael

Easley Family
Eaton, Charles A.
Eaton, Frances Steele
Edge, Walter E.
Edwards, Sallie Mae
Eisenstein, Jack, Dr.
Ekholm, A. Conrad
Elliot, Patrick Luke, Sr.
Elliott, Mabel
Elman, Harry “Ziggy”
Elwood, Robert Arthur, Dr.
Endicott, Allen B. and Allen B., Jr.
Endicott, Richard
Endicott, Thomas P.
Engelberg, Gusti
England, Bayard L.
England, Thomas M.
English, Albert
Essig, George Emerick
Estlow, Bert
Evans, Charles
Evans, Kevin
Evans, Lewis
Evans, Scott K.
Evard, Robert T.

Fagan, Harry M.
Fahey, Jack
Falcone, Silvio W., Jr.
Fansler, E. W.
Farley, Elmer J. “Eph”
Farley, Frank S. “Hap”
Farrell, James J.
Farris, Vera King
Faunce , William A.
Faurer, Louis
Feehan, John
Feinberg, Edward
Feldman, Dick
Fell, Evelyn
Fennan, William H.
Fenton, Arabella
Fenwick, Jeanne W.
Ferguson, Hannah
Ferry, Frank
Ferry, William Graham "Bud"
Fertig, Frank
Feyl, Albert J.
Feyl, Harold V.
Fiedler, Henry W.
Fildon, John A. "Jack"
Fink, John J., Rev.
Fink, Stanley
Fiore, Carl
Fiore, Frank D.
Fiore, Michael J.
Fischer, Chas. L.
Fish, Clyde M., Dr.
Fisher, Henry M., Rev.
Fitzpatrick, Jerry
Flach, John
Flaherty, J. Francis, Msgr.
Flaster, Karl W.
Floriani, Mario “Mud”
Flower, Frank R.
Foltz, Jesse A.
Ford, Christopher Joseph
Ford, Henry
Foreman, Viona Marie
Forman, Eleanor Cohen
Formica Family
Forrest, Charles
Forsythe, Albert, Dr.
Fotiou, Anthony R.
Foulois, Benjamin D., Maj. Gen.
Fox, Claire [SEE Fox, Thelma Claire]
Fox, James
Fox, John M.
Fox, Marion W., Dr.
Fox, Maude
Fox, Thelma Claire
Frambes, Horace K.
Frank, Samuel
Frascone, Angelo Ralph “Ang”
Fraser, James E. “Sonny”
Frazier, Wendy
Fredericks, Isaac
Fredericks, Murray
Freeman, Betty L.
French, Thos. E., Capt.
Friel, Martin Lowry, Jr.
Frudakis, Evangelos
Fulton, Bernard
Fundenberg, James von

Gale Family
Gardner, John James
Garrett, Thomas
Gaskill, Gordon A.
Gates, M. Estelle
Gatti, Eugene V.
Gaunt, Harold G.
Gaymon, William Dennis "Billy"
Gelb, Frank
Gemmel, William A.
Getzke, Marion S. (nee Springer)
Giberson, Daniel, Capt.
Gibson, Eva M.
Gilliam-Mosee, Redenia
Gillingham, Samuel A.
Gilmore, Chris
Gimbel, Richard
Ginsburg Family
Gisser, Norma Jean
Glass, Eleanor
Glass, Willie
Glenn Family
Godfrey, Carlton
Gold, Al
Gold, Marc
Goldberg, Maxwell "Sonny"
Goldstein, Adam "DJ AM"
Gomes, Dennis
Goodman, Benny
Gore, Betty
Gorman, Margaret
Gormley Family
Gormley, Raymond, Rev.
Gouldey, John
Gowdy, John
Graham, Clayton
Gramlich, Anne M.
Grant, Gary Lee, Jr.
Grant, Tony
Gravatt, Frank P.
Green, William
Greenberg, Louis
Greenberg, Sam
Greene, Edythe Collins
Greene, Maud R.
Greene, Ralph Preston, Jr.
Gregg, Carl Maceo
Gregory, T. Montgomery
Gross, Sheldon B.
Grossman, Meyer “Max”
Gruhler Family
Guardian, Donald A.
Guischard, Jack
Gunter-Gary, Shermaine
Gurney, Eliza P.


Haas, Gerald
Hackney Family
Haines, Dorothy Levy
Hall, Edna
Hall, Richelle
Hamer, Fannie Lou
Hamid Family
Hampton, Ida Mae
Hampton, Tashir
Haneman, Howard “Fritz”
Harris, Duane Edward
Harris, Edgar
Harris, Pattie
Harris, W. Oscar, Jr.
Harrold Family
Hart, Audrey [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection – Audrey Hart Photograph Collection]
Harvey, Nicola Marie
Hastings, Thomas
Hawkins, Elizabeth Della
Hawkins Family
Hayden, Marion
Hayes, Donald Jeffrey
Haynie, John and Mary
Headley, Samuel H.
Hedges, Edison
Heinisch, Carol Boyce
Helfgott-Hyett, Barbara [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection - ACFPL Collection of Scrapbooks]
Heston, Alfred M. [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection - Alfred M. Heston Papers]
High, Juanita
Hill, Bert Sr.
Hill, Marven F.
Hill, Pauline
Hill-Smith, Irene
Hines, Janie Moses
Hinkle, Simon C.
Hinton, Leo A.
Hitzel, Joseph M., Jr.
Hoffman, Elizabeth "Betty"
Hoffman, Samuel Charles
Hoffman, Samuel D.
Hogan, James C., Sr.
Holland, Dr. John "Doc"
Hollingsworth, Pierre
Hollingsworth, Soundra [SEE Usry-Hollingsworth]
Homberger Family
Homer, Winslow
Hope, Stan
Horn, Alma Fay [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection – Alma Fay Horn Photograph Collection]
Houssels, John Kell III
Houston, Charde
Hudgins, Gene
Hudson, Ralph James
Hudson, Thomas
Hunter, Pete
Hunter, Ralph, Sr.
Hurst, Ed
Hurst, Sarahjane
Hyde, Edith


Idler, James C.
Indyg Family
Ingersoll, Robert H., Judge
Ireland, Jean
Ireland, Milton S., Dr.
Ireland, Sam
Ireland, W. Scott
Irwin, Wm. S., Dr.

Jackson, Marion A., Rev.
Jackson, Richard S.
Jacobs, Herbert Samuel, Judge
Jacobs, Irving I.
Jacobsen, Emanuel “Jake”
Jacobson, David
Jacoby, Reuben
Jagmetty, Susan
Jagmetty, Victor
James, Etta
James-Cahill, Judith
Jaquish, John H.
Jasper, John R.
Jeffries, Charles P.
Jeffries, Walter S.
Jenkins, Byron
Jewell, Dorothy SEE: Beatty, Dorothy
Johnson, Alfred
Johnson, Ben
Johnson, Brezette A.C.
Johnson, Charlotte
Johnson, Dorothy
Johnson, Douglass P.
Johnson, Earl E.
Johnson, Enoch L. “Nucky”
Johnson, Helen Lee
Johnson, Leavander
Johnson, Lisa
Johnson, May A.
Johnson, Nelson, Judge
Johnson, Talitha
Johnson, Todd
Johnson, V. Earl, Dr.
Jolt, Rabbi Harry
Jones, Candy (Jessie Wilcox)
Jones, Edward C.
Jones, Elaine Venus
Jones, Florence
Jones, Harry T.
Jordan, Edward
Jordan, Hortense Allen
Jordan, Virgie
Josephson, Joseph
Jubilee, Ernest
Juliano, Frank, Jr.


Kader, Abd’el
Kahanamoku, Duke
Kahn, Dorothy
Kampes, Louise R.
Kaplan, David
Kaplan, Sonia
Karpis, Alvin
Kassekert, Linda
Katz Family
Keating, Marie D.
Kelley, Hazel M.
Kelley, John C.
Kelly, John Linus
Kemp, Franklin W., Chief
Kennedy, John F., Pres.
Kester, William J.
King, Don
Kirkman, Elwood F.
Klein, Arthur
Kleiner, Steven Z., Judge
Kline, Nathan, Dr.
Klotz, Louis Herman (Red)
Knight, Edward R., Dr.
Koelle, William F. B.
Kohl, Jean
Korey, Mary
Kornblau, Alexander
Kot, Raymond
Kramer, Katherine
Krassenstein, Edward and Herb
Kravitz, Jeff
Kravitz, Seymour “Pinky”
Kreischer, Rodney “Pete”
Krouse, Walter R., Rev.
Kuehnle, Louis

Lake, Arthur E.
Lake, Simon
Lamb, Robert L., Jr.
Lambert, George and Mrs. George
Lampson, Norman R., Jr.
Lane, James V.
Lane, James W.
Lang, Eddie
Langford, Lorenzo
Langford, Nynell
Lanni, J. Terrence "Terry"
Lanning, Van Lier
Lapidus, Alan
Lapres, Theodore E. and Theodore E., Jr.
LaSane, Joanna
LaSane, Karlos II
Latz Family
Lawrence, Jacob
Lazarow, Joseph
Lee, Jean
Lee, Larry
Lee, Lawrence "Larry", Jr.
Leeds Family
Leeds, Harold L.
Lenhart, George S.
Leon, Ralph
Leopold, Leo
Levi, Vicki Gold
Levin, Helen Miller
Levine, Louis
Levitt, Barbara
Levy, Bob
Levy, Lillian
Lewis, John Wesley
Lewis, Mother Emma
Lewis, P. Mortimer and P. Mortimer, Jr.
Lieberman, Morton H.
Lilly, James
Lilly, Joseph S.
Lindsay, Frank P.
Lindsay, Warner
Lingerman, Joseph E.
Lippincott Family
Lippman, Louis
Lippman, Simon
Lloyd, John
Lloyd, John Henry “Pop” [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection - Pop Lloyd Collection]
Lockett, Amaza Morris
Loeb, Sabina
Loizeaux Family
Longabaugh, Harry
Lord, Ernest A.
Lowe, Hannah P.
Lucas, Stanley L.
Ludy, Robert B.
Lupacchino, Antoinette
Lyght, William L. D., Rev.
Lyles-Belton, John H.
Lyles-Belton, Nycole

MacDonald, Robert P. “Scotty”
Mack, Dominick "Duke"
Mack, Louise
Madden, Thomas J.
Madden, William J.
Madsen, Clifford J. Sr.
Mahurin, Walker M. "Bud"
Majane, John A.
Mangels, Arthur C.
Mangone, Rose K.
Mangravite, Peppino Gino
Mannning, Max
Mansfield, Calvin D. “Peg”
Marcus, Arnold, Lt. (JG)
Marcus, Charles
Margerum, Jay
Markland, Matthew B.
Marks, Albert A., Jr.
Marks, Mary Kay
Marrandino, Angelo
Marrando, Don
Marsh, William "Speedy"
Martin, Bobby
Martin, Carl A., Jr.
Martin, Geo. W.
Martinelli, Ezio
Marvel, Philip, Dr.
Mason, Harvey
Mason, Dr. James H., IV
Mathis, Eben
Mathis, J. Vaughn
Mathis, Jesse
Mathis, Lewis L.
Mathis, Sharon Yvonne Bell
Matthews, Michael J.
Maxwell, Charles W.
Maxwell, Robert Chester
Maynard, Bill
Mays, Billy
McAllister, Robert N.
McAvoy, George C.
McBroom, Frank M.
McCall, Lawrence Brock "Sonny", Sr.
McCann, Dorothy T.
McClinton, Ada
McClinton, Oscar E.
McCorkle, Louis
McCullough, James
McCullough, Marie
McDermott, John J., Jr.
McDevitt, Bob
McDonough, Thomas J.
McDuffie, Robert L.
McGahn, Joseph L., Dr.
McGahn, Patrick T., Jr.
McGee, Albert A. F.
McGee, Thomas Michael
McGinty, Edward
McGuinn, David Warren
McGurran, Nellie
McKnight, Edwin H., Dr.
McKnight, Howard Rex
McKnight, Vince
McKnight, William, Jr.
McLaughlin, William
McLeod Family
McMahon, Ed
McMahon, William
McMeekin, Daniel L.
McMeekin, Thomas, Jr.
McMenamin, John, Father
McMillan, John, Rev.
McNamee, Joseph A.
Mellin, Henry Merle, Dr.
Mellinger, Clyde L.
Mellon, Olive A.
Merlino Family
Meth, Max
Metzger, Anita
Meyers, Wilson S.
Middleton, Grace Hutton
Middleton, Jacob
Milan Family
Millan, Cristal
Miller, Anthony J., Jr.
Miller, Anthony P., Jr.
Miller, Anthony P., Sr.
Miller, Dorothy
Miller, Edward K.
Miller, Florence Valore
Miller, Henry J. “Heinie”
Miller, Henry Piper
Miller, Lois McGill
Miller, Paul Wendell
Mills, Charles A.
Misphit (Rapper)
Moise, William L.
Molley, Bailey
Molley, Robert "Midget"
Monheit, Helen
Monroe, Marilyn
Mooney, John J.
Mooney, John III
Moore, Alfred
Moore, Allan Harold
Moore, Charles Kauhaupio
Moore, Charles Sumner
Moore, Frank G.
Moore, Harry C, Jr.
Moore, John H.
Moore, Joseph
Moore, Noah, Jr., Bishop
Moore, William T.
Moore, Willie Hobbs
Moran, Edward A., Rev.
Moran, Gregory, Rt. Rev. Msgr.
Morgan, George Burke
Morris, Charles Joseph
Morris, Daniel, Colonel
Morris, Daniel Eugene
Morris, S. LeRoy, Dr. [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection - Records of Fay-Mor-Wee, Home for the Aged and Infirmary, Inc.]
Morro, Blanche
Moss, Joseph H.
Mostovoy, Floretta
Mottola, Carl A.
Mullen, George F.
Muller, Fred C.
Mulligan, Frank P.
Mullin, John J.
Mulloy, William A.
Mulock, Herman G.
Murchison, Carrie, Elder
Murtland, John
Musarra, Joseph Anthony
Musto, Richard
Myers, Jacob C.
Myers, Jo Ann

Naame,  George T., Judge
Nappen, Edward
Nee, Paul
Negrelli, Desiree
Nelson, Kadir
Nestor, George P.
Neustadter, Samuel and Milton
Newell, Ray Newcomb
Newell, Thomas E. B.
Newman, Arnold
Newman, Rose
Newsome, Clifford J.
Nichols, Armand T.
Nickerson, Dawn
Nirdlinger, Charles F.
Nixon, Al
Noon, Ruth M.
Nordheim, Harry “Knock”
North, James
Nutter, Ike


Ocasio, Benjamin Mojica
O’Connell, Daniel J.
O’Donnell, John A.
Off, Frank B.
Ogilvie, Thomas F.
Ojserkis, Sigmund
O’Keefe Family
Okonow, Richard L.
Ojserkis, Benjamin
Oldfield, Winifred C.
Oliver, Gaspar
Oliver, Morris A. "Moe"
Olsen, Alfred R.
O’Neill, John F.
O’Neill, John P.
O’Neill, Kathryn V.
O’Neill, Paul J.
O'Reilly, Alton
Orman, Stumpy
Orr, Andrew
Orsatti, Arnold
Ost, Clarence S.
Oswell, Audrey
Otachi, Anne Bowman
Ottenberg, Alfred and Sadie
Owen, Alan

Packer, Ella
Palley, Reese
Pallitto, Peter "Pete"
Palmer, Thomas U. “Cush”
Palmisano, Marie
Palsgrove, J. Lincoln
“Pap”
Parker, Earl K., III
Parker, Edwin A.
Parker, James
Parker, John A.
Parker, Joseph Frank
Parker, Lucille
Parker, William F.
Parker, William F., Rev.
Parks, Rosa
Parsons, John W.
Pasquale, Joseph
Patterson, Russell
Paxson, Maie
Paxson, Joseph A.
Pellegrini, Robert
Pendleton, Emily B.
Perez, Rodolpho
Perfetti, Peter
Pergament, Allen "Boo"
Perkins, Alfred
Perkins, Nathaniel Lee
Perrone, Tony
Perskie, David M., Judge
Perskie, Jacob H.
Perskie, Joseph B., Justice
Perskie, Marvin
Perskie, Steven
Petersen, Christine M.
Petri, P. J., Msgr.
Pettijohn Family
Phillips, Adrain W.
Pinkney, Jackie Bass
Pitney, Jonathan, Dr.
Plum, J. Bunker
Plummer, Edward J.
Poffenberger, Alvin C.
Polillo, Joseph
Polisano, Angelina V.
Pollock, Michael
Pompeji, Elmo F.
Poole, George L.
Porch, Robert
Porten, David
Porter, Alexander W.
Postoll, Harry
Potter, Floyd A.
Powell, William M., Jr.
Preis, Ruth and Maurice J.
Price, William L.
Prosser, Evan
Purinton, Arthur J.
Purmell, Bluma Rappoport

Quaremba, John, Rev.
Quince, Remer
Quinn, James J.
Quinn, Norman J., Dr.
Quirk, Joseph R.

Raft, George
Raheem, Turiya S.A.
Rahn, Nathan D., Dr.
Ralston, George F., Jr.
Ramsey, Norman Percy
Rando, James J.
Rando, Nicholas G.
Rasheed, Dafiq
Rauffenbart, John and Thomas W.
Read, Hilton, Dr.
Reardon Family
Rechnic, Rose
Reed, David C.
Reed, Lewis and Thomas K., Drs. [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection - Dr. Thomas K. Reed Paintings]
Reed, William A.
Reeder, Valare E.
Reeves, Norman “Bees”
Reiber, F. Edwin
Reid, Bruce
Reilly, James B.
Reinhart, Nathan
Reis, Lillian "Tiger Lil"
Reitman, Harry
Rentschler, William H.
Repetto, Louis A.
Rey, Anthony M.
Reynolds, Charles C.
Rha, Catharine
Rhodes, Mabel
Rice, Ben
Rice, Thelma A.
Rich, Barry
Rich, Maurice F.
Rich, Wilfred B.
Richards, Emerson L.
Richards, S. Bartram
Richards, Samuel
Richardson Family
Richman, George
Richmond, H. Bradford
Rider, James A.
Riddle Family
Rightor, Chester E.
Rimm, Benjamin A.
Rink, Edward C.
Risley Family
Ritson, Thomas
Ritter, Dorothy
Rivera, Eric, Spc.
Roberts, Elwood Samuel, II
Roberts, George F.
Robinson, Eugene
Robinson, Jesse
Robinson, Sammy
Robinson, Ulysses Grant
Rochford, Emma S.
Rockwell, George Lincoln
Rohr, Philip
Roney, Russell C., Jr. and Sr.
Rongione, Alfred
Roome, Helen
Rose, Maurice, Jr.
Rosen, William and Charles
Rosenbaum, Elias
Rosenbaum, Jack
Rosenblatt Family
Rosengard, Samuel
Rosevear, Charles W.
Roth, Edwin J.
Rothberg, Saranne
Rothholz, Samuel
Rovner, Edward
Rowan, Robert Dennis “Sarge”
Rowell, David Howard
Rowley, Jesse L.
Royal, Wilbert “Huff”
Royer, Alfred Joseph
Rudich, Philip
Ruffolo, Bob
Ruffu, Anthony M., Jr.
Ruffu, Bill
Rundstrom, Leonard G.
Russo, Ronald R.
Rutherford, Maude Russell
Ryan, Maud

Sackett, Ada Taylor
Sady Family
Sage, Charles H. "Chick"
Sanders, Clara
Sanders, Joseph S.
Sandler, Chaim H.
Sandler, David R.
Sandler, Ric
Santoro, Vincent R. "Fuzzy"
Saracini, Victor J.
Saseen, Alfred
Saseen, George, Dr.
Sateriale, Joseph (Joe Sater)
Saul, Harry Dr.
Saul, Myer
Savage, Viola May
Savitt, Jacob B.
Scanlan, D. Ward and David B., Drs.
Scanlan, Edward A.
Scanlan, Jack
Scanlan, Mazie
Schaefer, Madeline
Schaufler, Aloysius
Scheiter, George A.
Schiff, Abraham and Robert
Schimpf, Theodore, W., Judge
Schoffer, Leo B.
Schoppy, William
Schultz, John
Schurgot, Helena
Schwab, William M.
Schwartz, Conrad
Schwartz, David G. 
Schwartz, Samuel "Sonny"
Schwendy, Carl Paul
Schwickerath, Frank A., Mrs.
Sciuto, Marie F.
Scott, Lewis P., Jr.
Scull, C. Mulford
Scull, Charles L.
Seedorf, Lillian Elizabeth "Betty"
Segal, Nathan A.
Segal, William I.
Segel, Harry C. “Chick”
Selya, John
Senseman, Theodore, Dr.
Siegfried, John A.
Shabazz, Hakim "Rob Jackson"
Shabazz, Kaleem
Shahadi, Albert N.
Shakur, Dr. Imam Khairi A.
Shaner, Frank J.
Shaw, Luther, Dr.
Shaw, Robert
Shellem, Robert P.
Shelton, Henrietta
Shepperson, Raymond E.
Sherman, Fred
Shields, William B.
Shinn Family
Shivers, Charles
Shronk, Eugene W.
Sickler, Harry T.
Silverman, Jack
Silvers, Homer I., Dr.
Simon, Bryant
Simone, Nina
Simpson, Matilda E.
Sinagra, Attilio
Sinatra, Frank
Sinderbrand Family
Sindoni, Anthony, Dr.
Sindoni, Frank Maiorana
Singer, Milton M., Mrs.
Siniari Family
Sinkinson, Charles, Dr.
Siracusa Family
Sivade, Suzanne
Skean, Albert H.
Skinner, Wilma
Slade, Irving
Slape, Harry L.
Slaughter, Lenora S.
Slotoroff Family
Smalley, Russell, Lt.
Smathers, William H.
Smith, Harry Ellsworth, Capt.
Smith, Lawrence
Smith, W. Hibberd
Snead, Mabelle Clark
Snyder, Willard Poinsette “W.P.”
Soble, Jack M.
Solanas, Valerie
Soloff, Joseph L.
Solomon, Manny
Somers, Florence
Somers, Harry G.
Somers, Hubert
Somers, Isora Blackman
Somers, Leon C.
Somers, Richard
Somers, Warren, Sr.
Somers, William T.
Soto, Bernard Mathew "Bernie"
Souder, Charles, Dr.
Souder, Kenneth
Speas, Mary “Peg”
Speciale, Vincent “Mr. Music”
Spillane, Maurice R., Rt. Rev. Msgr.
Spitler, Diane
Spreng, Mortimer
Stankard, Paul
Stanley, Milford W., Jr.
Starn, Clarence, Capt.
Staten, Bobby T.
Stebbins, Blanche “Babette”
Steel, Paul Halderman, Dr.
Steele, Larry
Steelman, Edgar
Steelman, Granville H.
Steelman, Paul
Steelman, Peter Lee
Steinbricker, Louis
Stern, Alex
Stern, William
Sterns, Joel H.
Stetser, Edward L. “Dutch”
Stetson, Wayne
Stewart, Blair
Stewart, Shirldine
Stiles, Arthur Henry
Still, James, Jr.
St. John, Louis
Stokking, William
Stolz, Adolf
Stout, Howard A.
Stoneburg, John H.
Stoy, Franklin P.
Stratton, Mason A.
Strickland, Clarence
Strotbeck, John
Stuckey, Henry
Styles, John E.
Suarez, Raul “Cook Books”
Subin, Harry J., Dr..
Sullivan, Jerry J.
Sundance Kid SEE: Longabaugh, Harry
Surtees, Emily
Swann,  Charles H., Capt.
Sweeney, George E. “Mike”
Sweeney, Harry A., Dr.
Swift, Richard E.
Sykes, John
Sykes, Matthew

Taber, David
Taggart, Thomas D. [SEE ALSO: Archival Collection - Taggart Scrapbook Collection]
Taliaferro, John Smith
Talley, Jere Elaine
Tannenbaum, Samuel A.
Targan, Donald G.
Tate, Millicent
Tate-Harrington, Celestine
Taylor, Eleanor
Taylor, Ralph L.
Tendler, Lew
Thomas, Harvey
Thomas, Lillian SEE ALSO: Raheem, Turiya S.A.
Thomas, William C. “Whitey”
Thompson, Doris B., Rev.
Thompson, “Happy”
Thompson, Harold H. “Slim”
Thompson, Jesse B., Dr.
Thompson, Joseph
Thompson, Mary Louise
Thompson, Philip E. M.
Thompson, Walter
Throckmorton, Cleon
Tilton Family
Timberlake, Baxter H., Dr.
Tisch Family
Tompkins, Grace S.
Toomey, Mary
Torcasio, Anthony T.
Torlini, Mamie
Totoro, Louis
Townsend, Bessie M.
Townsend, J. Hardenbrook, Rev.
Townsend, Thomas V.
Trader, Charles E.
Trench Family
Trilling Family
Trimble, Gerald R.
Tripician, Louis N.
Troy, Mary
Truex Family
Trusty, Sid
Tubis, Max
Turner, Florence
Turner, Frank
Turner, Maceo
Turton, Teresa L.
Two Moon, Chief
Tyner, Hank

Ulizio, B. George
Uncles, Doris
Usry, James L.
Usry-Hollingsworth, Soundra
Uzzell, Dr. Edwin F.

Valentino, Rudolph
Van Felix, Maurice
Van Gilder Family
Van Sant, Morrell C. “Gyp”
Vanderveer, Lettie C.
Vasser, Jeffrey
Venuti, Joe
Verga, George Perry
Vilensky, Benjamin
Vessella, Oreste
Vigue, Gerald

Wagenheim, Joseph
Wagenheim, Meyer
Wagner, Herman L.
Waiters, Mother Ethel
Walker, Lt. Wm. C. “Slick”
Walker, Wm. C.
Walling, Frank Wilson
Walsh, Edward
Walter, Lewis L., Dr.
Walton, Kenneth B.
Wamsher, Michael, Jr.
Wannamaker Family
Ward, Aleathia
Ward, Bruce
Ward, Lloyd L. "Scope"
Washington, Joseph Winston, Sr.
Washington, Pamela Y.
Washington, Sara Spencer
Wathen, Hugh L.
Watson, Latoya Nicole
Watson, Robert A.
Wawa Dairies
Waxman, Harry I.
Way, Warren Wade, Rev.
Weakley Family
Weatherby, Anna Elizabeth
Webster, Jean
Weeden, A. E.
Weekes, Reginald E., Jr.
Weeks, Jim, Dr.
Weidenfeld Family
Weilerstein Family
Weintraub Family
Weinberg, Melvin
Weinberger, Billy
Weintrob, Joseph
Weiss, Stan
Weitz, Martin M. Rabbi
Wellhofer, William G.
Werntz,  Charles L.
Wescoat, Absalom Steelman, Dr.
Wescott, William C., Dr.
Wescott, William Carter
Westney, Harry L., Dr.
Wexler, Linda
Whartman, Isaor C.
Whelan, James
Whelan, John J.
White, Chas. Doughty
White, Daniel S.
White, F. Fisher
White Family (Josiah III and Kirby)
White, John J., Judge
White, Joseph T., Dr.
Whitehead, Alfred W.
Whitehead, Thomas E.
Whitman, Bertram
Whitman, Walt
Whitmore, Frank C.
Whitmoyer, Raymond B.
Whittington, John Paul
Wiederwax, Robert
Wiesenthal, Allen
Wiessler, Anne
Wigglesworth, Virginia
Wilcox, Isabel G.
Wilkins, George
Wilkins, Kevin
Wilson, Daniel Walsh
Williams, Allison
Williams, Maude
Williams, Norman
Williams, William G. “Billy”
Willis, Robert M.
Wilson, Afric D.
Wilson, Albert M.
Wilson, Andrew P. “Drew”
Wilson, Catrina
Wilson, Charles E., Sr., Dr.
Wilson, George E.
Wilson, Martin S., Jr.
Wilson, William J.
Winn, Samuel L.
Wirtschafter, Jay Milder
Wolfe, Phyllis
Wolfson, Paul Martin, Dr.
Wood, Jack E. Jr.
Woodland, Joseph
Wootton, Thomas B.
Wright, Elias, General
Wright Family
Wright, Willard
Wu Family
Wynn, Steve

Yates, Harry E.
Young, Donald
Young, John, Capt.
Young-Keenan, Margaret E. "Peg"
Youngman, Maurice D., Dr.

Zaberer, Rita Ann
Zaris, Louis
Ziegler, Raymond M.
Zugsmith, Albert

Give me a short history of Atlantic City, New Jersey.

When did casino gambling start in Atlantic City?

casino skyline The issue of casino gambling first appeared on a ballot for New Jersey voters on November 5, 1974. This initial referendum was defeated in 19 of New Jersey's 21 counties, with about 60% of votes cast against it. A revised referendum, limiting gambling exclusively to the city limits of Atlantic City, was placed on the ballot November 2, 1976. The second referendum was approved by a slim margin, with approximately 1.5 million voters in favor of it and 1.14 million opposed. Atlantic City's first casino, Resorts International, opened on May 26, 1978.

Read more about the History of Casino Gambling in Atlantic City

Where and when was the first boardwalk constructed?

boadrwalk1 The first boardwalk built in the United States was in Atlantic City, New Jersey in 1870. A petition was presented to City Council on April 25, 1870 for the construction of a footwalk on the beach, and $5,000 in funds was allocated for construction. The footwalk opened to the public on June 26, 1870 and was eight feet wide, one mile long, and stood approximately one foot above the sand. Twenty-five years later Boardwalk was made an official street name in Atlantic City. (As an official street name, Boardwalk is always capitalized when referring to the street in Atlantic City.)

The deck of the Atlantic City Boardwalk is made of specially-treated yellow Southern pine with Douglas fir joists. As of 2001, the City Engineer uses Bethabara, a Brazilian wood, to replace damaged planks in the Boardwalk. The herringbone pattern dates from 1916. The Boardwalk’s supports are concrete-encased steel beams. The railings are galvanized aluminum.

Boardwalk from Steel Pier looking East. (1900, H009.Boardwalk004; ACFPL Heston Collection)
The current length of the Atlantic City Boardwalk is a little more than 4 miles. At the widest point, it is 60 feet wide, and it stands 12 feet above sea level. The combined length of the current Atlantic City and Ventnor Boardwalks is approximately 5.75 miles. The historic length of the Boardwalk, before the 1944 hurricane, was about 7 miles and it extended from Atlantic City, through Ventnor and Margate into Longport.

Over the years, the Boardwalk has been reconstructed to provide better access and stability:

  • The 2nd Boardwalk constructed in Atlantic City was opened about June, 1, 1880.
  • The 3rd Boardwalk opened about June 1, 1884.
  • The 4th Boardwalk was dedicated May 10, 1890.
  • The 5th Boardwalk was dedicated July 8, 1896.
H049.917.4985Eas153
Easter Promenade, Atlantic City. (Bef. 1907, H049.917.4985Boa153; ACFPL Heston Collection)

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Frank Butler. Book of the Boardwalk. Atlantic City, NJ: Haines and Co., 1952.

W. Earle Hawkins. Atlantic City Boardwalk, Relighted. Cleveland, Ohio: Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1954.

Vicki Gold Levi. Atlantic City, 125 Years of Ocean Madness. New York: C.N. Potter, distributed by Crown Publishing, 1979.

Jim Lilliefors. America's Boardwalks: from Coney Island to California. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2006.

William S. Purdie, P.P. "Design Review: the Atlantic City Boardwalk, a photoessay of the Boardwalk." Atlantic County, NJ: Atlantic County Department of Regional Planning and Development, 1987.

James C. Rogers. A Walk By the Sea: the story of the wonderful Atlantic City Boardwalk. [?]: [?], 1926.

Emil R. Salvini. Boardwalk Memories: tales of the Jersey Shore. Guilford, Conn.: Insider's Guide, 2006.

Subject File:
Boardwalk
Boardwalk - Centennial, 1970
Boardwalk - Trams

Archival Collections:
ACFPL Collection of Atlantic City Photographs, Boardwalk 90th Anniversary Photo Collection

ACFPL Film Collection

Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate other photographs and postcards on this subject.

What is salt water taffy?

taffy A popular, sticky Boardwalk treat, the term "salt water taffy" originated on the Atlantic City Boardwalk in the 1880s.

The first to sell a taffy confection of any sort on the Boardwalk, so far as can be discovered, were Ritchie Brothers and Windle W. Hollis, both of whom sold taffy about 1880. Popular legend says that another candy seller, David Bradley, who operated a candy stand at St. James Place and the Boardwalk, had an accident one night in August 1883. A storm splashed seawater over his candy stock. The story continues that a young lady purchased some taffy the next day, and Bradley remarked that it was "Salt Water Taffy". The name stuck, and because Bradley did not copyright or trademark the product, other candy-makers used it to advertise their own taffy.

The first mention of a Salt Water Taffy business in the Atlantic City City Directory was in 1889 under the name "Hollis, Windle W., Original Salt Water Taffy". Today, there are numerous sellers of the colorful treat on the Boardwalk and beyond.

Would you like to make your own salt water taffy? Try this recipe at Exploratorium.

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Frank Butler. Book of the Boardwalk. Atlantic City, NJ: Haines and Co., 1952.

Arthur H. Gager III. The History of Salt Water Taffy and the Life of Joseph F. Fralinger. N.p.: 2 ed., 1983.

Bryant Simon. Boardwalk of Dreams. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Subject Files:
Salt Water Taffy

Archival Collections:
Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate photographs and postcards on this subject.

I'd like a list of the Mayors of Atlantic City.

Mayors of Atlantic City

Name   Year(s) as Mayor
Chalkley S. Leeds   1854 - 1856
Richard Hacket   1856 (one month)
John G.W. Avery   1856 - 1857
Lewis Reed   1858 - 1861
Chalkley S. Leeds   1862
Jacob Middleton   1863 - 1864
Robert T. Evard   1865
David W. Belisle   1866 - 1867
Lemuel C. Eldridge   1868 (three months)
John J. Gardner gardener 1868 - 1872
Charles Souder   1873
John J. Gardner gardener 1874 - 1875
Willard Wright   1876 - 1877
John L. Bryant   1878
Willard Wright   1879
Harry L. Slape   1880
Willard Wright   1881
Charles Maxwell   1882 - 1885
Thomas C. Garrett   1886
Samuel D. Hoffman   1887 - 1891
Willard Wright   1892 - 1893
Franklin P. Stoy   1894 - 1897
Joseph Thompson   1898 - 1899
Franklin P. Stoy   1900 - 1911
George Carmany   1911 (six months)
Harry Bacharach bacharach mayor  - May 1912 (six months)
William Riddle   1912 - 1916
Harry Bacharach bacharach mayor 1916 - 1920
Edward L. Bader bader mayor 1920 - January 29, 1927
Anthony M. Ruffu, Jr.   1927 - 1930
Joseph Paxson (acting mayor)   1930 (three weeks)
Harry Bacharach bacharach mayor July 10, 1930 - July 18, 1935
Charles D. White   July 1935 - 1940
Thomas D. Taggart, Jr.   May 1940 - 1944
Joseph Altman   1944 - January 10, 1967
John A. O'Donnell (acting mayor)   January 10, 1967 -
Richard S. Jackson   May 19, 1967 - November 10, 1969
William T. Somers   November 12, 1969 - May 1972
Joseph Bradway, Jr.   May 16, 1972 - 1976
Joseph Lazarow lazarow mayor May 1976 - July 2, 1982
Michael J. Matthews   July 2, 1982 - March 14, 1984
James L. Usry   March 14, 1984 - July 2, 1990
James Whelan   July 2, 1990 - December 31, 2001
Lorenzo Langford langford mayor December 31, 2001 - January 1, 2006
Robert Levy   January 1, 2006 - October 10, 2007
William Marsh (acting mayor)   October 10, 2007 - November 21, 2007
Scott K. Evans evans mayor November 21, 2007 - November 13, 2008
Lorenzo Langford langford mayor November 13, 2008 - January 1, 2014
Donald A. Guardian   January 1, 2014 - present
From 1854 to 1886, the mayor’s term of office was one year. From 1886 to 1912, the mayor’s term of office was two years. In 1912, the term of office became four years.

In November 2000, Atlantic City voters approved a referendum changing the date and form of municipal elections. Previously held in May, the date for elections was moved to November, and political party affiliation was included on the ballot. The first election following the referendum was held in November 2001, and the new mayoral term began on January 1, 2002.

The city’s first African-American mayor was James L. Usry. Atlantic City has never had an elected female mayor.

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research. The Government of the City of Atlantic City, New Jersey: a report prepared for the Atlantic City Survey Commission. Detroit, Mich.: The Bureau, 1930. [photocopy]
Butler, Frank. Book of the Boardwalk. Atlantic City, NJ: Haines and Co., 1952.
English, A.L. History of Atlantic City, New Jersey. Philadelphia, Pa.: Dickson and Gilling: 1884.
Heston, Alfred M. History of Atlantic City Hall and Jail. [Atlantic City, NJ]: Alfred M. Heston, 1901.
Paulsson, Martin W. Politics and Progressivism in Atlantic City: a brief hour of reform. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1992. [photocopy]
University of Pennsylvania, Government Study Group, Department of Political Science. A New Government for Atlantic City: a strong mayor strong council plan. [Philadelphia, Pa.]:University of Pennsylvania, 1979.

Subject File:
Mayors of Atlantic City
Atlantic City - City Hall Officials
Additionally, there are biography files for most of the mayors, by last name.

Archival Collections:
Mayor Thomas Taggart Papers
Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate photographs and postcards on this subject.

How did the Miss America Pageant start?

As early as 1902, Atlantic City merchants promoted a Floral Parade of bathing beauties. In the early parade, the decorated rolling chairs were judged, rather than the ladies riding in them.

In 1921, as a device for extending the summer season beyond Labor Day, some Atlantic City businessmen organized a small-scale beauty contest. Seven cities in the Northeast each sent a "beauty maid" to represent them in the contest during the first week of September. The first winner was sixteen year-old Margaret Gorman, representing Washington, D.C., who was awarded a Golden Mermaid statue and the title "Miss America". The first contestants, clad in bathing suits, were judged solely on their appearance. From this two-day event evolved the Miss America Pageant.

Research the Miss America Pageant and its history in Atlantic City

How did Chicken Bone Beach get its name?

chickenboneThe sandy stretch from Missouri Avenue to Ohio Avenue was a dedicated area where African Americans could enjoy the Atlantic City Beach from 1900 until the early 1950s. This segregated beach came to be known as Chicken Bone Beach, as families and visitors arrived for a day at the beach with chicken dinners packed in picnic baskets.

African American visitors to Chicken Bone Beach included Sammy Davis, Jr., Ella Fitzgerald, Count Basie, Duke Ellington, the Club Harlem showgirls, Jackie Robinson, Lena Horne, and Sugar Ray Robinson. Musicians would hold impromptu concerts on the stretch, while children and adults splashed in the ocean and played on the sand. The Atlantic City Beach Patrol employed an all-black patrol that guarded Chicken Bone Beach at Missouri. The first black beach patrol captain was William Rube Albouy.

The City of Atlantic City designated Chicken Bone Beach as a local historic site on August 6, 1997. Currently, a historical foundation exists to promote family programs and activities at Missouri Avenue, including a summer jazz concert series.

Chicken Bone Beach Historical Foundation

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Charles E. Funnell By the Beautiful Sea: the rise and high times of that great resort Atlantic City. New York: Knopf, 1975.

Levi, Vicki Gold. Atlantic City, 125 Years of Ocean Madness. New York: C.N. Potter, 1979.

Subject Files:

Chicken Bone Beach
Black History in Atlantic City

Archival Collections:

"30 Years, 30 Voices" Oral History Project, 2008: Interview with Henrietta Shelton
Chicken Bone Beach Collection
Audrey Hart Photograph Collection
Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate some of the photographs and postcards on this subject.

What is a jitney?

jitney1997 The word "jitney" is a slang word for nickel, which is what it cost in 1915 for a ride in one of Atlantic City's earliest buses.  Even though the price has increased over the years, the name stuck and today you can still hop on a jitney to travel around Atlantic City.

The first jitneys in Atlantic City date to March 1915 and looked very similar to regular cars. They were large, black Ford model-T touring cars which used a rope-and-pulley system to open the back doors. Over the years, there have been more than eight different designs and at least four different colors for the Atlantic City jitneys. The current version, introduced in 1997, is a thirteen-passenger light-blue mini-bus by Champion Motor Coach. In 1982, a retired 1963 jitney was donated to the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History.

An Atlantic City jitney, ca. 1997. (Photograph
courtesy of the Atlantic City Jitney Association website.
)


The Atlantic City Jitney Association, established in 1915, claims to be the longest-running unsubsidized transit company in the United States. Each jitney is individually owned and operated, and drivers keep the fares. The Association awards the franchises and regulates the appearance of the buses and drivers; the Association also issues fines for violations and holds its own traffic court.By Atlantic City ordinance, the number of jitney franchises is limited to 190. City ordinance also regulates the price per trip and controls the jitney routes. Most of the jitneys routes run along Pacific Avenue. A jitney shuttle also runs from the Atlantic City Train Station to the various Casinos. For jitney routes and prices, please visit the Atlantic City Jitney Association website.

jitney1955
Jitney with driver posing. (1950, H009.388.4Jit1011; ACFPL Heston Collection)

RELATED RESOURCES IN THE HESTON COLLECTION

City of Atlantic City. City Ordinances, 1915-1917, 1920, 2008, and other years.

A.M. Heston, compiler. Clippings: trolley and jitney wars of Atlantic City 1888-1889, 1915-1916.

"Jitneys of Atlantic City." Motor Coach Today, vol. 4, no. 2 (April –June 1997).

"The Vogue of the Jitney." The Detective, vol. XXI, part 11 (June 1915).

Subject Files:
Jitneys
Transportation

Archival Collections:
Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate photographs and postcards on this subject.

What is the connection between the game Monopoly and Atlantic City?

oldmonopoloy Charles B. Darrow, an unemployed salesman and inventor living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania struggling to support his family in the years following the great stock market crash of 1929, is credited with inventing Monopoly as we know it. Darrow remembered his summers spent in Atlantic City, New Jersey and spent his spare time drawing the streets of Atlantic City on his kitchen tablecloth, with found pieces of material, paints, and wood contributed by local merchants. A game was already forming in his mind as he built little hotels, houses and other tokens to go along with his painted streets.

Soon friends and family gathered nightly to sit round the kitchen table to buy, rent and sell real estate, all part of a game involving spending vast sums of play money. It quickly became a favorite activity among those with little real cash of their own. The friends soon wanted copies of the game to play at home (especially the winners.) The accommodating inventor began selling copies of his board game for four dollars each. He then made up a few sets and offered them to department stores in Philadelphia.

Photograph of Monopoly Board ca. 1935. (H009.Monopoly002; ACFPL Heston Collection)
Orders for the game increased to the point where Darrow decided to try to sell the game to a game manufacturer rather than going into full-scale manufacturing. He wrote to Parker Brothers to see if the company would be interested in producing and marketing the game on a national basis. The company turned down Darrow’s offer, explaining that his game contained "fifty-two fundamental errors", including that the game took too long to play, the rules were too complicated and there was no clear goal for the winner.

Darrow continued to manufacture the game; he hired a friend in the printing business to produce five thousand copies. He filled orders from department stores including F. A. O. Schwarz. One of his customers was a friend of Sally Barton, the wife of Parker Brothers' president, George Parker. The friend told Mrs. Barton about how much fun Monopoly was, and the friend also suggested that Mrs. Barton tell her husband. Mr. Barton listened to his wife and bought a copy of the game. He arranged to discuss business with Darrow in Parker Brothers' New York office and offered to buy the game and give Charles Darrow royalties on all sets sold. Darrow accepted in 1935 and permitted Parker Brothers to develop a shorter variation on the game, included as an option to the rules.

The royalties from Monopoly made Charles Darrow a millionaire, the first game inventor to make that much money. In 1970, a few years after Darrow's death, Atlantic City erected a commemorative plaque in his honor. It stands on the Boardwalk, near the corner of Park Place.

monopoly tribute
Charles B. Darrow Boardwalk plaque at Boardwalk and Park Place. (Undated, H009.Monopoly001; ACFPL Heston Collection)
 

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Maxine Brady. The Monopoly Book: strategy and tactics of the world’s most popular game. New York: D. McKay Co., 1974.

Rod Kennedy, Jr. and Jim Waltzer. Monopoly, the story behind the world’s best-selling game. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2004.

Philip Orbanes. The Monopoly Companion. Boston, Mass.: Bob Adams, Inc., 1988.

Noel Gunther and Richard Hutton. Beyond Boardwalk and Park Place: the unauthorized guide to making Monopoly fun again. New York: Bantam Books, 1986.

Subject Files:
Monopoly

Archival Collections:
ACFPL Game Collection

ACFPL Collection of Atlantic City Photographs – Uncataloged Photographs by subject

What is the origin of the rolling chairs on the Boardwalk?

rollingchair At the Philadelphia Convention in 1876 rolling chairs were first introduced for recreational use. These early chairs, which accommodated only one person, closely resembled wheelchairs (or invalid chairs) of that time. The chairs arrived in Atlantic City by 1884, when Philadelphia merchant Harry D. Shill started offering them for rent. In 1887, William Hayday, who owned a hardware store near the Boardwalk, started renting similar wheelchairs to vacationers in Atlantic City and provided attendants to push the chairs.

When the first Boardwalk was laid out in 1870, vehicles of any kind were prohibited. The construction of the third Boardwalk in 1884 was more accessible to vehicles, and wheelchairs were allowed for the use of handicapped persons. Some individuals pretended to need the chairs. City authorities made no objection to this, and the practice grew. The City began licensing rolling chairs in 1891, charging a $10 fee for each chair.
Early Rolling Chair. (H009.388.341Rol; ACFPL Heston Collection)

RELATED RESOURCES IN THE HESTON COLLECTION

Frank Butler. Book of the Boardwalk. Haines and Co.: Atlantic City, NJ, 1952.
A.E. Seidel.  100 Years of Boardwalk Rolling Chairs.  N.p.: Atlantic City, NJ, 1984.
Bryant Simon. Boardwalk of Dreams. Oxford University Press: New York, 2004.

Subject Files:
Rolling Chairs
Rolling Chairs News Excerpts (388.341 Rol)

Archival Collections:
Please see the Heston Collection indexes at the Reference Desk to locate postcards and photographs on this subject.

When did Steel Pier open?

old steelpier Steel Pier originally opened in 1898 and takes its name from the iron pilings driven into the ocean ground, which are topped by steel girders. The original pier jutted out 1,621 feet from the Boardwalk and cost $350.000 to build.

Billed as "the Showplace of the Nation", it quickly became known for showcasing the world's top entertainers. From the 1920s through the 1950s, everyone who was anyone played Steel Pier. Annie Oakley headlined the opening festivities on June 18, 1898. W.C. Fields was a member of the minstrel group that appeared during the Pier's inaugural season, but headline appearances quickly followed for him and many others. Guy Lombardo, Benny Goodman, Jimmy Dorsey, Mae West, Charlie Chaplin, The Three Stooges, Bob Hope, Amos 'n Andy, Frank Sinatra - all entertained on Steel Pier. Many Big Bands launched their careers with a stint on Steel Pier. The Diving Horse was also a mainstay on Steel Pier for many years.

Steel Pier with airplane flying over. (1930, H009.624.158Ste061; ACFPL Heston Collection)
After a 1982 fire, the Steel Pier was revived as an amusements-only attraction in 1993. For many years, it was one of the few family friendly spots in town. The Pier itself is currently owned by Trump Entertainment Resorts, Inc. and includes amusements and attractions for all ages. For hours, ticket information, and information on rides and attractions, see the Steel Pier website.

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Jim Futrell. Amusement Parks of New Jersey. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 2004.

Steve Leibowitz. Steel Pier, Atlantic City: Showplace of the Nation. West Creek, NJ: Down the Shore Pub., 2009.

Vicki Gold Levi. Atlantic City, 125 Years of Ocean Madness. New York: C.N. Potter, distributed by Crown Publishers, 1979.

Jim Waltzer and Tom Wilk. Tales of South Jersey: Profiles and Personalities. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Subject Files:
Diving Horse
Piers – Steel Pier
Piers – Steel Pier Programs

Archival Collections:
ACFPL Collection of Atlantic City Photographs, Steel Pier Ford Motor Co. Exhibit Photographs, 1940

ACFPL Film Collection

Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate photographs and postcards on this subject.

What is the history of the diving horse?

diving horse 2 One of the most famous acts on the Boardwalk - and one of the iconic symbols of old Atlantic City - was the Diving Horse act that was introduced to Steel Pier in the late 1920s and continued until 1978. A revised version of the act was briefly resurrected for a few months in 1993.

According to Atlantic City historian Allen "Boo" Pergament, William F. "Doc" Carver, a former show partner of "Buffalo Bill" Cody invented the diving horse act in 1881 after a wooden bridge gave way under him, and he and his horse fell into the Platte River in Nebraska. He turned this episode into an act and performed it at county fairs. Frank P. Gravatt, an Atlantic City hotel builder, brought the act to Steel Pier in 1928.

Sisters Sonora Webster Carver and Arnette Webster French were among the first diving horse riders. In August 1931, Sonora Webster Carver was blinded in a diving accident when the horse landed badly. She continued to dive, though. Her story was depicted in the 1991 Walt Disney movie, Wild Hearts Can’t Be Broken.

Diving Horse in Mid-Flight. (1930, H009.624.158Div582; ACFPL Heston Collection)
Below is an incomplete list of the Atlantic City diving horse riders and the years they dove:

Lorena (or Leonora) Carver, Doc Carver’s daughter and the first rider, dove from 1913-1938
Sonora Webster Carver, Doc Carver’s daughter-in-law, dove from 1923-1942
Shae Chandler
Josephine K. De Angelis, friend of Sonora and Arnette Webster, dove from 1935-1942 
Patty Dolan
Margaret (or Marjorie) Downs, a substitute rider from 1933-1934 
Elsa
Arnette Webster French, Sonora Carver’s sister, dove from 1928, 1931-1935
Olive Gelnaw
Barbara E. Gose, 1967
Grace, 1936
Florence Virginia Griffith (nee Thompson)
Marion S. Hackney
Lynne Jordan, rider in the 1960s
Marie, 1929, 1931
Marty
Terrie McDevitt, the last of the diving horse riders, from 1976-1978
Ann Miles, substitute rider in the 1960s
Elsa Rahr

Some of the diving horses were:

Apollo
Dimah
Duchess of Lightning (or Lightning)
Emir
Gamal
Gordonel
John the Baptist
Judas
Junior
Klatawah
Lorga (or Lorgah)
Powderface (or Powder Face)
Pure as Snow (or Snow)
Red Lips
Shiloh
Silver King

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Sonora Carver. A Girl and Five Brave Horses. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961.

Linda Oatman High. The Girl on the High-diving Horse. New York: Philomel Books, 2003.

Vicki Gold Levi. Atlantic City, 125 Years of Ocean Madness. New York: C.N. Potter, distributed by Crown Publishers, 1979.

Jim Waltzer and Tom Wilk. Tales of South Jersey: Profiles and Personalities. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Wild Hearts Can’t Be Broken. Walt Disney, 1991. (video and DVD)

Subject Files:
Carver, Lorena
Diving Horse
Downs, Margaret H.
Piers – Steel Pier Programs

Archival Collections:
Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate photographs and postcards on this subject.

When did the first picture postcards appear in the United States?

old postcard Some older sources incorrectly report that picture postcards first appeared in Atlantic City. The first picture postcards in the United States appeared at the 1893 Chicago Columbian Exposition. These were sold in a vending machine in sets of 10.

Carl Voelker, Sr., publisher of a local newspaper, introduced the first Atlantic City picture postcards in 1893 or 1896. His wife brought the idea home to Atlantic City after a visit to Germany. The Voelkers printed cards with scenes of Atlantic City in color. Many early Atlantic City postcards were printed in Germany.
Young's Hotel and Pier. (1911, H049.647.94You570; ACFPL Heston Collection)

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Lida Hall. Atlantic City Remembered: thirty-two postcards made from antique postcards. Atlantic City, NJ: Chelsea Press, 1979.

James D. Ristine. Atlantic City. Arcadia Publishing, 2008.

Archival Collections:

ACFPL Collection of Atlantic City Postcards

Anthony J. Kutschera Postcard Collection

Where is the All Wars Memorial Building?

In the 1920s, Atlantic City erected two buildings in memory of the area’s war veterans.

allwars1 The All Wars Memorial Building at 814 Pacific Avenue opened on April 24, 1924. It was used as headquarters for the City’s white veterans’ groups. The building boasted a 600-seat auditorium and a dining room that seated 280. This building was purchased and demolished by the Trump organization in the 1990s.
All Wars Memorial Building at Night
(Pacific Ave.)
. (1935, H009.725.94All309; ACFPL Heston Collection)
The other building, known variously as the Westside or Northside All Wars Memorial Building or the Old Soldiers’ Home, is located at 1510 Adriatic Avenue. It was dedicated on August 15, 1925 and served as a center for the resort’s black veterans. The building originally included dormitories, which were later converted in two 1,500-seat auditoriums and meeting rooms.

Rheims Post 564 of the Veterans of Foreign Wars began campaigning in 1920 for a building for veterans. Wounded veterans were often sent to the seashore to recover, but there was not a home for black veterans. In February 1921, the City commissioners authorized the construction of “a building to be dedicated to public use as a permanent memorial commemorative of the services of the soldiers and sailors of the colored race of the City of Atlantic City, who have served in any war in which the United States has participated” (City of Atlantic City Public Ordinance No. 6, 1921). Various individuals and corporations donated more than $45,500 for the construction of the Old Soldiers’ Home.

The Old Soldier’s Home served as the center for the City’s Northside residents and members of that area’s Veterans of Foreign Wars, the American Legion, and the United Spanish War Veterans for many years.

As of 1998, the building was not listed on the National Historic Register. In 2005, the City of Atlantic City decided to renovate the Old Soldiers’ Home, expending $11.2 million for the project. The renovation includes two additions, making the structure 29,100 square feet. The renovated building includes three ballrooms, improved kitchens, tennis courts, and a memorial to the resort’s soldiers. The project was completed in 2008 and the building was reopened for public use. allwars2
All Wars Memorial Building Renovations, from the corner of  New York and Drexel Avenues.
(2008, H009.AllWars2008.corner of NY and Drexel)
[Gary Baker, for the City of Atlantic City]

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

City of Atlantic City, Public Ordinances, 1919-1924.

Subject Files:
Parks/Memorials/Monuments – War Memorials – All Wars Memorial Building

Archival Collection:
All Wars Memorial Buliding [Pacific Avenue building] Guest Book, 1924-1933. [Part of H041, Col. John Jacob Astor Camp #28 Records.]

Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate photographs and postcards on this subject.

Where was the term “airport” first used?

airport Bader Field and Planes. (1969, H009.387.7Bad410; ACFPL Heston Collection)

The name "airport" was coined in Atlantic City to designate its airfield, Edward L. Bader Field, which was accessible from both air and water. No actual record exists for who is responsible for the name, but two stories exist. Henry Woodhouse, one of the owners of the field is said to have come up with the name when it opened on May 10, 1919. A second story tells of a newspaperman, William B. Dill, editor of The Press of Atlantic City, first using the term. What is known is that immediately following the 1910 Atlantic City Aero Show, in which the airplanes took off from the beach, famous air-traveler Augustus Post wrote an article entitled "Atlantic City, the New Air Port".

On September 30, 2006, Bader Field closed. At that time, it was the oldest operational municipal airport in the country. There are no definite plans for the property at this time.

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Frank Butler. Book of the Boardwalk. Atlantic City, NJ: Haines and Co., 1952.

Col. Lester E. Hopper. Civil Air Patrol Oral History Program: Interview of Ms. Mairlou Crescenzo Eggenweiler. El Paso, Texas, 1984.

Atlantic City Airports: clippings, 1941-1970. Atlantic City, NJ: Atlantic City Free Public Library, 1994.

Subject Files:

Aviation - Airports and Airlines – Bader Field
Aviation History
Aviation History - Aero Show Meet 1910
History of Atlantic City – Firsts

Archival Collections:
ACFPL Collection of Atlantic City Photographs, Aero Show Meet, 1910

ACFPL Collection of Atlantic City Photographs, Civil Air Patrol

Please see the Heston Collection Indexes at the Reference Desk to locate other photographs and postcards on this subject.

Who is Sarah Spencer Washington?

sarah spencer "Madame Washington" as she was widely known, was a millionaire black businesswoman and founded the Apex News & Hair Company. She was born June 6, 1889 in Beckley, Virginia and died March 23, 1953 in Atlantic City. In 1913 she started a hairdressing business in Atlantic City, and later expanded the business, teaching students and developing beauty products. In 1920, noting the lack of beauty products for African Americans, she founded the Apex News & Hair Company. Apex maintained a lab and school in Atlantic City, as well as an office in New York City. Eventually her beauty colleges were located in twelve states and there were 35,000 agents all over the world. After Washington’s death, her daughter, Joan Cross Washington, led the company until it was sold.

Madame Washington has been called one of the most important business executives in the black community. She was honored at the 1939 New York World's Fair as one of the "Most Distinguished Businesswomen". She founded a nursing home - Apex Rest - for the elderly in Atlantic City, and after encountering discrimination at the local golf course, she established her own for people of all races to enjoy a round of golf. She initiated an Easter Parade for African Americans in Atlantic City when they were denied entry to the annual event on the Atlantic City Boardwalk. She was also an active member of the Atlantic City Board of Trade.

Sarah Spencer Washington, proprietor of Apex News & Hair Co. (1940s, H038.Apex001; ACFPL Heston Collection)


Related Resources in the Heston Collection





Atlantic City Board of Trade. Board of Trade: Annual Directory. Atlantic City, NJ: The Board, various years.

Richlyn F. Goddard. Three Months to Hurry and Nine Months to Worry: resort life for African Americans in Atlantic City, NJ 1850-1940. Ph.D. dissertation. Washington, DC: Howard University, 2001.

Subject Files:
Black Businesses
Sara Spencer Washington



Archival Collections:
Apex Country Club Photograph Collection

Sarah Spencer Washington Exhibit Materials

Who was Nucky Johnson?

nucky Enoch L. "Nucky" Johnson was an Atlantic City political boss and racketeer who unofficially ran the Republican political machine that controlled Atlantic City and Atlantic County from the 1910s - 1930s. Born in 1883 in Smithville, New Jersey, "Nucky" (a nickname derived from his first name) was allegedly involved in promoting bootlegging during Prohibition, illegal gambling activities and prostitution. Johnson's trademark was a fresh red carnation in his lapel, and he frequently wore a full-length raccoon coat in the winter.

Johnson graduated from Atlantic City High School in 1900. In 1905, he was appointed undersheriff (his father was sheriff), and in 1908, he was elected sheriff when his father's term expired. He became secretary of the powerful Atlantic County Republican Executive Committee in 1909. In 1911, local political boss Louis Kuehnle was convicted on corruption charges and imprisoned; Johnson allegedly succeeded him as boss. Officially, Johnson held various jobs, including Atlantic County Treasurer (1914), County Tax Collector, publisher of a weekly newspaper, bank director, president of a building and loan company, director of a Philadelphia brewery, and salesman for an oil company (after 1945).

In May 1939, after an extensive federal investigation, Nucky Johnson was indicted for income tax evasion in the sum of $125,000. He was convicted in July 1941 and sentenced to 10 years in prison and a $20,000 fine. He entered Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary on August 11, 1941, was paroled on August 15, 1945, and took a pauper's oath to avoid paying the fine. Johnson died on December 9, 1968 at the Atlantic County Convalescent Home in Northfield, New Jersey.

Related Resources in the Heston Collection

Grace Anselmo D'Amato. Chance of a Lifetime: Nucky Johnson, Skinny D'Amato and How Atlantic City Became the Naughty Queen of Resorts. Harvey Cedars, NJ: Down the Shore Publishing, 2001.

Nelson Johnson. Boardwalk Empire: the birth, high times, and corruption of Atlantic City. Medford, NJ: Plexus, 2002.

William McMahon. So Young, So Gay! Atlantic City, NJ: Press Publishing, 1970.

John Stoneburg. The Boardwalk Empire: the Nucky Johnson story. [S.l.: n.p.], [1968].

US Department of Justice and US Department of Treasury. The Case of Enoch L. Johnson: a complete report of the Atlantic City investigation conducted jointly by the Treasury Department and the Department of Justice. [United States: n.p.], [1942].

Chick Yeager. The Republican Boss Era of Atlantic City, 1900-1971. [S.l.: n.p.], 1981.

Subject Files:
Enoch "Nucky" Johnson
Nelson Johnson
Organized Crime

Archival Collections:
ACFPL Collection of Atlantic City Photographs

ACFPL Living History Project (interviews that mention Nucky Johnson include #2 Leon Binder, #23 Frank Hires, # 27 Leslie Kammerman, #33 James Latz, #52 Eddie Solitaire, and Anonymous Interview #5 "Chester").

Atlantic City Board of Trade advertising pamphlets